Types and forms of prostatitis: symptoms and features

Prostatitis is a disease based on inflammatory damage to the tissue of the prostate gland, which manifests itself with various symptoms. The disease is observed only in the strong half of the population, because the prostate is located only in the male body.

Etiology (causes) of inflammation.

There are many factors that lead to the development of the disease. The most common of them are:

  • The presence of an infection focus in the body (tonsillitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, etc. )
  • Damage to the external genitalia.
  • Damage to the soft tissues of the pelvic region.
  • Frequent hypothermia of the body.
  • Poor physical activity level.
  • Urinary retention.
  • Stagnation in seminal secretion due to irregular sex life.
  • Excess weight.
  • Sedentary lifestyle.
  • Chronic inflammatory processes in the organs of the genitourinary system (pyelonephritis, urethritis, orchitis, cystitis, epididymitis)
  • Hormonal imbalance.
  • Intestinal disorders manifested by disturbances in food intake (constipation, diarrhea)
  • The presence of an inflammatory process in the rectum (proctitis, anal fissure, hemorrhoids, paraproctitis)
  • Having a history of sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Stress.
  • To smoke.
  • Alcohol abuse.
  • Avitaminosis.
  • Too much work.
  • Violent sexual activity.
  • Immune deficiency.

the causative agent of the disease

The most common microorganisms that cause inflammation in the prostate gland are:

  1. Escherichia coli (about 80%)
  2. Serratia Pseudomonas.
  3. Klebsiella Pseudomonas.
  4. Proteus Pseudomonas.
  5. enterococcus.
  6. Staphylococcus aureus.

Classification of pathological processes

In medicine, several classifications have been accepted that describe the course of infection in the prostate gland.

Clinical-pathomorphological-etiological classification:

  1. Acute prostatitis.
  2. Prostate abscess.
  3. Prostatism.
  4. Chronic prostatitis.
  5. Granulomatous inflammation of the prostate.
  6. Congestive prostatitis.
  7. Sclerosis of the prostate gland.
  8. Prostatorrhea.
  9. Atypical forms of chronic prostatitis.
  10. Neurovegetative prostatopathy.

Also, the described disease differs according to classes:

  • 1 degree - acute prostatitis.
  • 2 degree - chronic bacterial prostatitis.
  • Grade 3 a - chronic pelvic pain syndrome with symptoms of chronic prostatitis / inflammation.
  • Grade 3 b - chronic prostatitis without signs of inflammation / chronic pelvic pain syndrome.
  • Grade 4 - asymptomatic chronic prostatitis.

Types and forms of the disease

Based on the above classifications, it can be determined that the main types of prostatitis are:

  • spicy.
  • Chronic.

Depending on the degree of damage to the prostate gland, the acute inflammatory process is divided into several forms:

  1. catarrhal
  2. Follicular.
  3. Parenchymal (diffuse).

The catarrhal form is characterized by a mild, superficial inflammatory process affecting the prostate gland. Therefore, the openness of the latter's excretory channels is disturbed. This leads to accumulation of secretions in the prostate gland. The prostate gland becomes enlarged and edematous.

The follicular form of acute prostatitis is the next stage in the development of the pathological process. As a result, individual lobules of the prostate are affected and purulent contents are formed in them.

In the parenchymal form, inflammation covers the entire tissue of the prostate gland. It becomes edematous and very painful. An abscess of the prostate gland can form against the background of parenchymal prostatitis.

Clearly expressed forms of chronic pathology are currently not found in the medical literature.

Stages of the disease

Although there are no obvious forms in the course of the chronic process, this pathology is divided into several stages.

The first is the stage of alternative changes. This is manifested by the mild effect of inflammation on the prostate tissue. If the treatment starts on time (at this stage), the disease stops very quickly. As a rule, relapses of the disease are not observed.

If the patient does not receive treatment, then the stage of proliferative changes begins. During this time, prostate tissue grows to suppress inflammation. Then comes the third stage - fibrosclerotic changes.

There is a lot of tissue growth and it replaces healthy cells. But the resulting tissue does not have the same properties as healthy prostate tissue. Because of this, a person begins to repeat the disease and has a long course.


Acute pathology is manifested by the following clinical symptoms:

  • An increase in body temperature up to 38-40 ° C.
  • Deterioration of the general condition.
  • Don't get cold.
  • Pain in the abdomen, perineum, anus, penis.
  • Discomfort during urination and/or defecation.
  • Delayed stool, gas.
  • Increased urge to urinate.
  • Urinary retention.
  • Increased excitability.
pain in a man with prostatitis

Chronic prostatitis is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • Discomfort in the lower abdomen.
  • Erectile dysfunction.
  • Irritation.
  • Whitish discharge from the penis.
  • Increase the duration of sexual intercourse.
  • Decreased flow of urine.
  • Incomplete emptying of the bladder.

Complications of the pathological process

In the absence of a timely start or an inadequate course of treatment, the development of acute pathology can have different directions.

In the first case, acute inflammation of the prostate gland flows into a chronic process. The latter is characterized by a change in periods of exacerbation and remission. Treatment of chronic prostatitis is very difficult, as a rule, you will have to put up with it and be ready for the next exacerbation.

If the inflammatory process develops very quickly, then it can lead to the formation of an abscess of the prostate. That is, a large abscess is formed in the tissue of the prostate gland. The most common treatment for prostate abscess is surgery.

Since the prostate gland is very well supplied with blood, bacteria from the lesion can enter the bloodstream. If this happens, a very terrible complication appears in a person - sepsis. It is very difficult to defeat sepsis, so the death rate in the presence of this disease is very high.

Untreated disease can lead to the development of male infertility due to the location of the sperm vesicles near the prostate. Also, the gland is closely connected with the testicles, where the formation of spermatozoa occurs.

Inflammation of the prostate can cause narrowing of the urethra. Due to the adaptation of the latter to the urethra, inflammation from the prostate can spread to the urethra. This causes scar tissue to form in the urethra and reduce its diameter.

In addition to spreading the inflammatory process to the urethra, it can also pass to the bladder. Thus, the patient may experience recurrent (recurrent) cystitis. If infected urine is discharged from the bladder back to the kidney, it leads to the development of pyelonephritis.

Treatment of the disease

It is worth noting that therapy for prostatitis should be comprehensive. The following points should be observed in the treatment of acute prostatitis:

  1. The fight against the inflammatory process in the prostate is impossible without prescribing antibacterial drugs. The attending physician must determine the causative agent of the disease and prescribe medicine to destroy it. It is better if the doctor prescribes to take several antibiotics at the same time.
  2. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. They have a good analgesic effect and reduce inflammation. It is recommended to take these drugs not only in the form of tablets, but also in the form of suppositories for rectal use.
  3. Detoxification therapy can be performed in severe general condition or high body temperature.
  4. When a patient is diagnosed with a prostate abscess, surgical intervention is necessary.

To eliminate chronic inflammation in the prostate gland, you need the following:

  • Prostate massage (only performed by a urologist)
  • Drugs that improve metabolism in the prostate gland.
  • Taking NSAIDs.
  • Immunomodulatory drugs.
  • Physiotherapy.
  • Sedative drugs.